power distance is the power of a relationships between people in a company or family And power is spread unequally between them.
ex: In UAE the relationship between the manager and the worker is high distaned (formal relationship) but, in Denmark it’s low which means the relationship between the manager and the worker is informal.
- Individualism and collectivism (IDV)
Individualism refers to people who only take care of themselves. They use (My,I) more than (We,Our).
Collectivism refers to people who expect from their relatives to look after them. They use (We,Our) more than (My,I).
ex: US is a Individualism culture and UAE is a collectivism culture.
- Uncertainty avoidance (UAI)
it deals with a society’s tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity.
strong UAI maintain rigid codes of belief and behaviour and are intolerant of unorthodox behaviour and ideas.
Weak UAI societies maintain a more relaxed attitude in which practice counts more than principles.
ex: UAE have a strong UAI. US have a weak UAI
- Masculinity vs. femininity (MAS)
The women in feminine countries have the same modest, caring values as the men but in the masculine countries they are more assertive and more competitive, but not as much as the men.
Femininity : equality between men and women in all the terms.
Masculinity: men have more rights than women in some terms.
ex: the Masculinity in US is high and in UAE is equal (50%).
- Long term orientation vs. short term orientation (LTO)
This dimension describes how every society has to maintain some links with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the present and future.
long term orientation: take a more pragmatic approach. they encourage thrift and efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future.
short term orientation: prefer to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while viewing societal change with suspicion.
ex: US is a short term orientation.
- Indulgence vs. restraint (IND)
Indulgence: a society that allows relatively free gratification of basic and natural human drives related to enjoying life and having fun.
Restraint: a society that suppresses gratification of needs and regulates it by means of strict social norms.
ex: US scored as an Indulgent society .
Geert Hofstede: the 6 Dimensions of National Culture