6 Dimensions – Comparing between US and Japan

6 Dimensions America Japan

Power Distance

  • Lower power distance (40).
  • Flatter organizations.
  • Supervisors and employees are considered almost as equals.

  • Average power distance (54).
  • ¬†Centralized companies.
  • Some gaps in compensation authority and respect.

Individualism / Collectivism

  • Higher Individuality (91).
  • High valuation on people’s time and their need for freedom.
  • An enjoyment of challenges, and an expectation of rewards for hard work.
  • Respect for privacy.

  • Higher Collectivism (46).
  • Emphasis on building skills and becoming masters of something.
  • Work for intrinsic rewards.
  • Harmony more important than honesty.

Uncertainty Avoidance

  • Low UAI (46).
  • Informal business attitude.
  • More concern with long term strategy than what is happening on daily basis.
  • Accepting of change and risk.

  • ¬†Higher UAI (92).
  • Very formal business conduct with lots of rules and policies.
  • Need and expect structure.
  • Sense of nervousness spurns high levels of emotions and expression.
  • Differences are avoided.

Masculinity / femininity

  • More likely to Masculinity (62).
  • A women can do anything a man can do.
  • Powerful and successful women are admired and respected.

  • Higher MAS (95).
  • Men are masculine and women are feminine.
  • There is a well-defined distinction between men’s work and women’s work.

Long term orientation / short term orientation

  • Lower LTO (26).
  • Promotion of equality.
  • High creativity, individualism.
  • Treat others as you would like to be treated.
  • Self-actualization is sought.

  • Higher LTO (88).
  • Family is the basis of society.
  • Parents and men have more authority than young people and women.
  • Strong work ethic.
  • High value placed on education and training.

Indulgence  / restraint

  • More likely to indulgence (68).
  • Free to enjoy life and have fun.
  • Instant gratification.
  • Lose social norms.

  • Higher restraint (42).
  • Self-restrained.
  • Curb gratification.
  • Strict social norms.



Hofstede‚Äôs Six Dimensions of Culture.

  • Power distance (PDI)

power distance is the power of a relationships between people in a company or family And power is spread unequally between them.

ex: ¬†In UAE the relationship between the manager and the worker is high distaned (formal relationship) but, in Denmark it’s low which means the relationship between the manager and the worker is informal.¬†

  • Individualism and collectivism (IDV)

 Individualism refers to people who only take care of themselves. They use (My,I) more than (We,Our).

Collectivism refers to people who expect from their relatives to look after them. They use (We,Our) more than (My,I).

ex: US is a Individualism culture and UAE is a collectivism culture.

  • Uncertainty avoidance (UAI)

it deals with a society’s tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. 

strong UAI maintain rigid codes of belief and behaviour and are intolerant of unorthodox behaviour and ideas.

Weak UAI societies maintain a more relaxed attitude in which practice counts more than principles.

ex: UAE have a strong UAI. US have a weak UAI

  • Masculinity vs. femininity (MAS)

The women in feminine countries have the same modest, caring values as the men but in the masculine countries they are more assertive and more competitive, but not as much as the men. 

Femininity : equality between men and women in all the terms. 

Masculinity: men have more rights than women in some terms. 

ex: the Masculinity in US is high and in UAE is equal (50%).

  • Long term orientation vs. short term orientation (LTO)

This dimension describes how every society has to maintain some links with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the present and future. 

long term orientation: take a more pragmatic approach. they encourage thrift and efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future.

short term orientation: prefer to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while viewing societal change with suspicion.

ex: US is a short term orientation.

  • Indulgence vs. restraint (IND)

Indulgence: a society that allows relatively free gratification of basic and natural human drives related to enjoying life and having fun.

Restraint: a society that suppresses gratification of needs and regulates it by means of strict social norms.

ex: US scored as an  Indulgent society . 




Geert Hofstede: the 6 Dimensions of National Culture




High/Low Context Culture

  • Strong sense of family (H) : Family always comes first. When life isn’t treating you well, family will do anything/everything just to see you happy, they will stand by your side when everyone leaves you. This is why i think it’s important to me to have a very strong sense with my family ‚̧
  • ‚ÄėHave a go at it‚Äô philosophy (L) : I think¬†going through a new experiences is more fun than staying in your comfort zone. Taking risks and go for something new will always make you gain skills, knowledge and sometimes, it gives you some lessons in life.¬†
  • Close personal relationships (H) : I don’t mind to have a lot of friends or mates and communicate with them but i prefer having few real loyal, honest, friends that i can trust, like blind trust, and i can be sure that they will be there when i’m in need and for sure i’ll do the same and more. knowing people is really fun but sometimes it’s good to have limits with them.¬†

Cultural advertsing

1- Women/Men who wears uncovered cloths- kind of naked.

Because it’s against our culture and religion also it’s not suitable for children to see those Ads.

2- Pork

Because the meat of the pork is haram.

3- Avoiding areas 

Such as Masjed, Because it’s a religious place and it must be respected.

Culture Clash


Answers :

1-Unrespectful, rude. Some may not do that because they take care about their appearance. Also, it may be a problem for those who are always well-dressed.

2- Using the word “Yesterday” probably means that the american businesswomen want’s the report as soon as possible. Maybe some of them will get it as “too late” but not in a direct phrase.¬†

3- Some of people find it really interesting to talk about work at dinner parties and some find it rude because the purpose of the dinner party is to have fun and enjoy your time out of work. 

4- Hong kong is one of the strongest Monochronic cultures and this is why he will get mad when they’re late but not all the¬†employees will¬†be comfortable with his new rule specially those who don’t give time it’s value or who came to work from a polychronic cultures.

5- Spain is Polychronic and USA-NYC is Monochronic, this means that the spanish secretary did a great job to complete the report before the deadline.  

6- I shouldn’t wipe¬†my hand and face after the meal, because chinese/japanese people clean/wipe¬†hands before the meal and maybe this will make my chinese colleague thinks that i’m rude unless he understands that I don’t have experience with the hot towel as a result of the difference between our cultures.